Original Research Article I Volume 4 I Issue 2 I 2016

Pre-hospital risk factors affecting mortality and impaired level of consciousness in traumatic brain injury: an update

El-Bitany AR; Marey AG; Farghaly NF; Aly MA

Biolife; 2016, 4(2), pp 251-254.



Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health preventable disease; this study is concerned about prehospital risk factors affecting mortality and impaired consciousness assessed by Glasgow coma scale after follow up for fourteen days. This study was conducted on 100 patients admitted to Emergency department at Alexandria main University Hospital with blunt or penetrating moderate and severe traumatic brain injury and assessed according to sex, age, trauma mechanism, prehospital time, SBP, Respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, GCS, pupil reaction and trauma severity assessed by revised trauma score.


(Pre-Hospital Risk Factors, Traumatic brain injury)


  1. Patel HC, Bouamra O, Woodford M, King AT, Yates DW, Lecky FE.Trends in head injury outcome from 1989 to 2003 and the effect of neurosurgical care: an observational study. Lancet 2005; 366:1538-44. 
  2. Schirmer-Mikalsen K, Vik A, Gisvold SE, Skandsen T, Hynne H, Klepstad P.Severe head injury: control of physiological variables, organ failure and complications in the intensive care unit. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2007; 51:1194-201. 
  3. Baguley IJ, Nott MT, Howle AA, Simpson GK, Browne S, King AC, et al. Late mortality after severe traumatic brain injury in New South Wales: a multicentre study. Med J Aust 2012; 196:40-5. 
  4. Rosenfeld JV, Maas AI, Bragge P, Morganti-Kossmann MC, Manley GT, Gruen RL.Early management of severe traumatic brain injury. Lancet 2012; 380:1088-98. 
  5. Cernak I, Vink R, Zapple DN, Cruz MI, Ahmed F, Chang T, et al. The pathobiology of moderate diffuse traumatic brain injury as identified using a new experimental model of injury in rats. Neurobiol Dis 2004; 17:29-43.
  6. Hellal F, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Crocci N, Palmier B, Plotkine M, Marchand- Verrecchia C.Pattern of cerebral edema and hemorrhage in a mice model of diffuse brain injury.  NeurosciLett 2004; 357:21-4. 
  7. McHugh GS, Engel DC, Butcher I, Steyerberg EW, Lu J, Mushkudiani N, et al.Prognostic value of secondary insults in traumatic brain injury: results from the IMPACT study. J Neurotrauma 2007; 24:287-93.
  8. Hukkelhoven CW, Steyerberg EW, Farace E, Habbema JD, Marshall LF, Maas AI.Regional differences in patient characteristics, case management, and outcomes in traumatic brain injury: experience from the tirilazad trials. J Neurosurg 2002; 97:549-57. 
  9. Sophia Tohme, Cecile Delhumeau, Mathias Zuercher, Guy Haller and Bernhard Walder:prehospital risk factors of mortality and impaired consciousness after severe traumatic brain injury :an epidemiological study. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2014 22:1.
  10. Mizraji R, et al. Brain death epidemiology in Uroguay and utilization of Glasgow      Coma Score in acute brain injured patients as a predictor of brain death. Transplant proc 2009;41(8):3489-91.
  11. Gwaram UA, Ihezue CH, Onche II. Assessing the severity of injury using the revised trauma score in a tertiary institution in North-Central Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci 2013;10:3-7...

Article Dates:

Received: 4 April 2016; Accepted: 19 May 2016; Published: 3 June 2016

How To Cite:

El-Bitany AR, Marey AG, Farghaly NF, & Aly MA. (2022). Pre-hospital risk factors affecting mortality and impaired level of consciousness in traumatic brain injury: an update. Biolife, 4(2), 251–254. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7317682

Download Full Paper: PDF